A nation-wide survey on ‘Land and Livestock Holdings’ in 70th round (January 2013-December 2013) was conducted in Rural India. The surveys on Land and Livestock Holdings are conducted decennially from the 8th round of NSSO (1954-55) onwards. The first survey on land holdings was taken up as part of the World Agricultural Census initiated by the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The current survey on Land and Livestock Holdings is the seventh such survey.
The information collected in the Land and Livestock Holdings survey could be categorized into the three broad aspects of land ownership holdings, operational holdings and ownership of livestock.
- To provide information on different aspects of land use and livestock holdings, and develop suitable indictors and critical inputs as may be useful for planning and policy formulation.
Visits 1 & 2: Each sample FSU (villages) was visited twice during this round. Since the workload of the first visit (i.e. visit1) was more, the first visit continued till the end of July 2013. Thus, period of the first visit was January – July 2013 (7 months) and that of the second visit (i.e. visit 2) was August – December 2013 (5 months).
The number of villages (FSU) surveyed was 4,529 and number of sampled households (SSU) surveyed were 35,604 in visit 1 and 35,337 in visit 2.
House: Every structure, tent, shelter, etc. was a house irrespective of its use. It might be used for residential or non-residential purpose or both or even might be vacant.
Household: A group of persons normally living together and taking food from a common kitchen constituted a household.
Household size: The number of members of a household was its size.
Household classification: The household classification was based on the source of major income of the household
Homestead land (house-site): Homestead of a household was defined as the dwelling house of the household together with the courtyard, compound, garden, out-house, place of worship, family graveyard, guest house, shop, workshop and offices for running household enterprises, tanks, wells, latrines, drains and boundary walls annexed to the dwelling house. All land coming under homestead was defined as homestead land (house site).
Plot: A distinct patch of land demarcated generally by a strip of raised land, commonly known as ‘ails’ or ‘bunds’ was defined as a plot.
Ownership of land: A plot of land was considered owned by the household
- Permanent heritable possession, with or without the right to transfer the title, was vested in a member or members of the household
- Land held in owner-like possession under long term lease or assignment
Land possessed: Land possessed was given by land owned (including land under ‘owner like possession’) + land leased in – land leased out + land held by the household but neither owned nor leased in (e.g., encroached land).
Land irrigated: Irrigation was considered as a device of purposively providing land with water, other than rain water, by artificial means for crop production. Land irrigated was defined as the net irrigated area.
Lease of land: Land given to others on rent or free by owner of the land without surrendering the right of permanent heritable title.
Otherwise possessed land: All public/institutional land possessed by the household without title of ownership or occupancy right.
Jhum land and jhum cultivation: The preparation of jhum land was done by cutting and clearing of forest areas and burning of the dried biomass by setting fire. The jhum land was used for growing crops of agricultural importance such as upland rice, vegetables or fruits.
Cultivation: All activities relating to production of crops and related ancillary activities were considered as cultivation. Growing of trees, plants or crops as plantation or orchards (such as rubber, cashew, coconut, pepper, coffee, tea etc.) were not considered as cultivation activities for the purpose of this survey.
Livestock: Livestock were those animals which were used for food, fibre, labour, etc. Animals kept as pets, snakes, reptiles, frogs, fishes were excluded from the coverage of livestock.
Household Operational Holding: constitutes of all land that was used wholly or partly for agricultural production and was operated (directed/managed) by one household member alone or with assistance of others, without regard to title, size or location. The land might be operated by members belonging to a single household or by members belonging to more than one household operating jointly.
A household was found to grow vegetables in kitchen garden only, or flowers in the courtyard, it was considered to possess an operational holding. Likewise, a household engaged exclusively in livestock keeping or poultry raising or pisciculture was considered to operate a holding, even if no crop production was undertaken by it during the reference period.
A household carried out any agricultural production during the reference period, plots possessed by the household during the major part of the reference period and put to uses other than agricultural production, such as house-sites, paths, buildings, etc., were also included in the operated area of the household operational holding.
A household did not undertake any agricultural production on any part of the land possessed by it during the reference period, it was not considered to have any operational holding.
Individual and joint operational holding: If the household operational holding was managed by one or more members of a single household, it was taken as individual holding. It was treated as a joint operational holding only when it was managed by members of more than one household.
Category of land holding
Landless*: less than or equal to 0.002 hectares
Marginal: more than 0.002 but less than or equal 1.000 hectares
Small: more than 1.000 but less than or equal to 2.000 hectare
Semi-medium: more than 2.000 but less than or equal to 4.000 hectares
Medium: more than 4.000 but less than or equal to 10.000 hectares
Large: more than 10.000 hectares
* ‘less than or equal to 0.002 hectares’ as classified under ‘landless’ category, also includes plots where area is not reported.
Information in Land and Livestock Holding
The survey on Land and Livestock Holding contains information on
- Particulars of land (owned, leased-out, leased-in and otherwise possessed) of the household
- Location of land
- Duration of possession
- Number of lessor/lessee households
- Terms of lease
- Land use during July 2012 to December 2012/January 2013 to June 2013/whole agricultural year (July 2012 to June 2013)
- Whether irrigated
- Sources of irrigation etc.
Information on number of livestock, poultry, duckery, etc., owned by the household as on the date of survey was also collected. Besides collection of information on land and livestock, information was collected on some household characteristics such as
- Household classification
- Social group
- Whether the household operated any land on Jhum cultivation during last 365 days, etc.
Some information on demographic particulars from each of the household members was also collected such as
- General education level
- Whether associated with the household operational holding etc.
STATA codes for extraction of data from .txt file
Before reading this section, you have to read “Ready reckoner NSSO Unit level Data Analysis”, “Importing text data into STATA using infix command”.
infix str round_centre_code 1-3 str FSU_No 4-8 str Round 9-10 str schedule_No 11-13 str samp 14-14 str sector 15-15 str state_region 16-17 str district 19-20 str stratum_No 21-22 str schedule_type 25-25 str sub_round 26-26 str sub_sample 27-27 str FOD_sub_region 28-31 str hamlet_subblock 32-32 str SSS 33-33 str HH_No 34-35 level 36-37 filler 38-42 HH_size 43-44 str NIC_08 45-49 str NCO_04 50-52 HH_type 53-53 religion 54-54 social_group 55-55 own_any_land 56-56 type_land 57-57 land_owned 58-65 land_leasedin 66-73 otherwise_possessed 74-81 land_leasedout 82-89 land_tot 90-97 Cultivated 98-105 Irrigated 106-113 spl_chr 114-115 blank 116-126 NSS 127-129 NSC 130-132 MLT 133-142 using R7001T1L02.TXT
infix code is used for importing .txt data into STATA. In the above code, with the help of data layout file as provided in supporting documents with the data; the name of variable, length of variable and type of variable is defined. For example, the first variable name is round_centre_code with length of 1-3 and type string as str was written before the name of variable, Similarly, there is one variable with name HH_type with length of variable is 53-53 and since the variable is integer type, it is not required to define the type of variable.
After the successful import of data, you can perform the various activities like calculation of Weights, creating primary key,merging of the data from one level to other levels, Estimation of the required parameters with the help of weights and perform various statistical analysis.
The extracted files of 70th round of Land and Livestock Holdings are given in below:
The each .dta file contains the data in the following format: